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Some Helpful Articles:


Stephanie Keen, an ECMO Story Stephanie Keen, an ECMO Story


Carrie walking on ECMO



Aneroid Blood Pressure Manometer Calibration Rates in Physical Therapy Curricula: A Descriptive Study.Arena SK., et al. Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal. 2016;27(2):56-61. PMID: 26645840


The Role of Physical Therapists in the Management of Individuals at Risk for or Diagnosed With Venous Thromboembolism-- Executive Summary of an Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline. Hillegass E., et al. Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal. 2016; 27(2): 42-46.  PMID: 26515263


TryCYCLE: A Prospective Study of the Safety and Feasibility of Early In-Bed Cycling in Mechanically Ventilated Patients. Kho ME, et al. PLoS ONE 2016;11(12): e0167561. Full Text for Free



Australian Best Practices Guideline for Physical Activity and Movement: A Guideline for Crittically Ill Adults:

Full Text for Free


Sole, ML et al. Clinical Indicators for Endotracheal Suctioning in Adult Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation. Am J Crit Care July 2015;24(4)318-324.  PMID: 26134331  Full Text for Free


Wilson C, et al. Therapist perceptions of physical counterpressure maneuvers for the management of pre-syncope. JACPT. 2015;6(3):102-112. Abstract


Early Mobility Activities During Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy. Brownback CA, et al. Am J Crit Care.  2014 July;23(4) 348-351.  PMID: 24986178 Full Text for Free


Enabling speech in ICU patients during mechanical ventilation. Egbers, P, et al. Intensive Care Medicine 2014;40(7):1057–8. PMCID: PMC4061473 Full Text for Free

Muscle atrophy, pain, and damage in bed rest reduced by resistive (vibration) exercise. Miokovic T, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014 Aug;46(8):1506-16. PMID: 24561811


Innovative mobility strategies for the patient with intensive care unit-acquired weakness: a case report. Trees DW1, Smith JM, Hockert S. Phys Ther. 2013 Feb;93(2):237-47. PMID: 22577069 Full Text for Free

Issues affecting the delivery of physical therapy services for individuals with critical illness.
Pawlik AJ1, Kress JP. Phys Ther. 2013 Feb;93(2):256-65. PMID: 23162041 Full Text for Free

Move to improve: the feasibility of using an early mobility protocol to increase ambulation in the intensive and intermediate care settings. Drolet A., et al. Phys Ther. 2013 Feb;93(2):197-207.  PMID: 22976447 Full Text for Free

Translating Research Into Clinical Practice: The Role of Quality Improvement in Providing Rehabilitation for People With Critical Illness. Ohtake PJ, et al. Phys Ther. 2013; 93:128-133. PMID: 23378659 Full Text for Free


Early mobilization in the management of critical illness. Pawlik AJ. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2012 Sep;24(3):481-90. PMID: 22920471


Ambulating With Pulmonary Artery or Femoral Catheters in Place. Winkelman C. Crit Care Nurse October 2011;31(5):70-73 PMID: 21965386 Full Text for Free


Physical therapy management and patient outcomes following ICU-acquired weakness: a case series. Nordon-Craft A, Schenkman M, et al. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2011 Sep;35(3):133-40. PMID: 21934375


Early mobility and walking for patients with femoral arterial catheters intensive care unit: a case series. Perme C, et al. J Acute Care Phys Ther. 2011;2(1):32–36.

Early mobilization in critically ill patients: patients' mobilization level depends on health care provider's profession. Garzon-Serrano J, Ryan C, et al. PM R. 2011 Apr;3(4):307-13. PMID: 21497316

Implementing early mobilization interventions in mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU. Schweickert WD, Kress JP.  Chest. 2011 Dec;140(6):1612-7. PMID: 22147819


Early mobilisation of intensive care unit patient: the challenges of morbid obesity and multiorgan failure. Korupolu R, Zanni JM, Fan E, Butler M, Needham DM. BMJ Case Rep. 2010;2010. pii: bcr09.2009.2257.  PMID: 22461852  Full Text for Free

Feasibility of physical and occupational therapy beginning from initiation of mechanical ventilation. Pohlman MC, Schweickert WD, et al.  Crit Care Med. 2010 Nov;38(11):2089-94.PMID: 20711065

Rehabilitation therapy and outcomes in acute respiratory failure: an observational pilot project. Zanni JM, Korupolu R, et al. J Crit Care. 2010 Jun;25(2):254-62. PMID: 19942399


Clinical trials of early mobilization of critically ill patients. Kress JP. Crit Care Med. 2009 Oct;37(10 Suppl):S442-7. PMID: 20046133

Culture of early mobility in mechanically ventilated patients. Bailey PP, Miller RR 3rd, Clemmer TP. Crit Care Med. 2009 Oct;37(10 Suppl):S429-35. PMID: 20046131

Early exercise in critically ill patients enhances short-term functional recovery. Burtin C, Clerckx B, et al. Crit Care Med. 2009 Sep;37(9):2499-505. PMID: 19623052

Early mobility and walking program for patients in intensive care units: creating a standard of care. Perme C, Chandrashekar R.  Am J Crit Care. 2009 May;18(3):212-21. PMID: 19234100  Full Text for Free

Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial. Schweickert WD, Pohlman MC,et al. Lancet. 2009 May 30;373(9678):1874-82. PMID: 19446324

Rehabilitation in the intensive care unit. Rochester CL. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Dec;30(6):656-69. PMID: 19941223

Rehabilitation therapy and outcomes in acute respiratory failure: an observational pilot project. Zanni JM, et al. J Crit Care. 2010 Jun;25(2):254-62. PMID:19942399

Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review. O'Connor ED, Walsham J. Crit Care Resusc. 2009 Dec;11(4):290-300. PMID: 20001881

Strategies for Promoting Early Activity in Critically Ill Mechanically Ventilated Patients

Hopkins, Ramona O.; Spuhler, Vicki J. AACN Advanced Critical Care. 20(3):277-289, July/September 2009. PMID: 19638749

Technology to enhance physical rehabilitation of critically ill patients.

Needham DM, Truong AD, Fan E.  Crit Care Med. 2009 Oct;37(10 Suppl):S436-41. PMID: 20046132


Early intensive care unit mobility therapy in the treatment of acute respiratory failure. Morris PE, Goad A, Thompson C, Taylor K, Harry B, Passmore L, Ross A, Anderson L, Baker S, Sanchez M, Penley L, Howard A, Dixon L, Leach S, Small R, Hite RD, Haponik E.  Crit Care Med. 2008 Aug;36(8):2238-43.  PMID: 18596631

The impact of continuous lateral rotation therapy in overall clinical and financial outcomes of critically ill patients.  Q. Swadener-Culpepper L, Skaggs RL, Vangilder CA.  Crit Care Nurs 2008 Jul-Sep;31(3):270-9.  PMID: 18574374

Mobility interventions to improve outcomes in patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation: a review of the literature.  Choi J, Tasota FJ, Hoffman LA.  Biol Res Nurs. 2008 Jul;10(1):21-33.  PMID: 18647758

Mobilizing patients in the intensive care unit: improving neuromuscular weakness and physical function.  Needham DM.  JAMA. 2008 Oct 8;300(14):1685-90.  PMID: 18840842

Patients with respiratory failure increase ambulation after transfer to an intensive care unit where early activity is a priority.  Thomsen GE, Snow GL, Rodriguez L, Hopkins RO.  Crit Care Med. 2008 Apr;36(4):1119-24.  PMID: 18379236

Does physiotherapy reduce the incidence of postoperative complications in patients following pulmonary resection via thoracotomy? a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Reeve JC, Nicol K, Stiller K, McPherson KM, Denehy L. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2008 Jul 18;3:48.

PMID: 18634549  Full Text for Free

The effect of physiotherapy on ventilatory dependency and the length of stay in an intensive care unit.

Malkoç M, Karadibak D, Yldrm Y.  Int J Rehabil Res. 2008 Nov 13.

PMID: 19011583

Joint contracture following prolonged stay in the intensive care unit.

Clavet H, Hébert PC, Fergusson D, Doucette S, Trudel G.  CMAJ. 2008 Mar 11;178(6):691-7.  

PMID: 18332384  Full Text for Free

A randomized controlled trial on early physiotherapy intervention versus usual care in acute care unit for elderly: potential benefits in light of dietary intakes.  Blanc-Bisson C, Dechamps A, Gouspillou G, Dehail P, Bourdel-Marchasson I.  J Nutr Health Aging. 2008 Jun-Jul;12(6):395-9.

PMID: 18548178

Effectiveness of prolonged use of continuous passive motion (CPM), as an adjunct to physiotherapy, after total knee arthroplasty.  Lenssen TA, van Steyn MJ, Crijns YH, Waltjé EM, Roox GM, Geesink RJ, van den Brandt PA, De Bie RA.  BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008 Apr 29;9:60.

PMID: 18442423  Full Text for Free

Physiotherapy for adult patients with critical illness: recommendations of the European Respiratory Society and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Task Force on Physiotherapy for Critically Ill Patients.

Gosselink R, Bott J, Johnson M, Dean E, Nava S, Norrenberg M, Schönhofer B, Stiller K, van de Leur H, Vincent JL.  Intensive Care Med. 2008 Jul;34(7):1188-99.

PMID: 18283429  Full Text for Free

Prevention of pulmonary complications after upper abdominal surgery by preoperative intensive inspiratory muscle training: a randomized controlled pilot study.  Dronkers J, Veldman A, Hoberg E, van der Waal C, van Meeteren N.  Clin Rehabil. 2008 Feb;22(2):134-42.

PMID: 18057088 


Cytokines in chronically critically ill patients after activity and rest.  Winkelman C, Higgins PA, Chen YJ, Levine AD.  Biol Res Nurs. 2007 Apr;8(173071154):261-71.  PMID: 17456587

Early intensive care unit mobility: future directions.  Morris PE, Herridge MS.  Crit Care Clin. 2007 Jan;23(1):97-17307115110.  PMID: 17307119

Early activity is feasible and safe in respiratory failure patients.  Bailey P, Thomsen GE, Spuhler VJ, Blair R, Jewkes J, Bezdjian L, Veale K, Rodriquez L, Hopkins RO.  Crit Care Med. 2007 Jan;35(1):139-45.  PMID: 17133183

Inactivity and inflammation in the critically ill patient.  Winkelman C.  Crit Care Clin. 2007 Jan;23(1):21-34.  PMID: 17307114

A mobility protocol for critically ill adults.  Timmerman RA.  Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2007 Sep-Oct;26(5):175-9.  PMID: 17704667

Mobilizing the patient in the intensive care unit: the role of early tracheotomy.Clum SR, Rumbak MJ.  Crit Care Clin. 2007 Jan;23(1):71-9.  PMID: 17307117

Safety issues that should be considered when mobilizing critically ill patients.  Stiller K.  Crit Care Clin. 2007 Jan;23(1):35-53.  PMID: 17307115

Transforming ICU culture to facilitate early mobility.  Hopkins RO, Spuhler VJ, Thomsen GE.  Crit Care Clin. 2007 Jan;23(1):81-96.  PMID: 17307118

Safety issues that should be considered when mobilizing critically ill patients.

Stiller K.  Crit Care Clin. 2007 Jan;23(1):35-53.

PMID: 17307115

Physiotherapy in intensive care is safe: an observational study.

Zeppos L, Patman S, Berney S, Adsett JA, Bridson JM, Paratz JD.  Aust J Physiother. 2007;53(4):279-83.

PMID: 18047463  Full Text for Free

Lateral positioning of ventilated intensive care patients: a study of oxygenation, respiratory mechanics, hemodynamics, and adverse events.

Thomas PJ, Paratz JD, Lipman J, Stanton WR.  Heart Lung. 2007 Jul-Aug;36(4):277-86.

PMID: 17628197

Chest physiotherapy prolongs duration of ventilation in the critically ill ventilated for more than 48 hours.

Templeton M, Palazzo MG.  Intensive Care Med. 2007 Nov;33(11):1938-45.

PMID: 17607561  Full Text for Free

Outcomes research in the ICU: an aid in defining the role of physiotherapy.

Hanekom SD, Faure M, Coetzee A.  Physiother Theory Pract. 2007 May-Jun;23(3):125-35.

PMID: 17558877

Additional exercise does not change hospital or patient outcomes in older medical patients: a controlled clinical trial.  de Morton NA, Keating JL, Berlowitz DJ, Jackson B, Lim WK.  Aust J Physiother. 2007;53(2):105-11.

PMID: 17535146  Full Text for Free


Acute neuromuscular weakness in the intensive care unit.  Maramattom BV, Wijdicks EF.  Crit Care Med. 2006 Nov;34(11):2835-41.  PMID: 16932235

Clinical approach to the weak patient in the intensive care unit.  Dhand UK.  Respir Care. 2006 Sep;51(9):1024-40; discussion 1040-1.  PMID: 16934166  Full Text for Free

Moving our critically ill patients: mobility barriers and benefits.  Morris PE.  Crit Care Clin. 2007 Jan;23(1):1-20.  PMID: 17307113

Respiratory physiotherapy to prevent pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery: a systematic review.  Pasquina P, Tramèr MR, Granier JM, Walder B.  Chest. 2006 Dec;130(6):1887-99.

PMID: 17167013  Full Text for Free

The effect of additional physiotherapy to hospital inpatients outside of regular business hours: a systematic review.  Brusco NK, Paratz J.  Physiother Theory Pract. 2006 Dec;22(6):291-307.

PMID: 17166820

Positioning practices for ventilated intensive care patients: current practice, indications and contraindications.  Thomas PJ, Paratz JD, Stanton WR, Deans R, Lipman J.  Aust Crit Care. 2006 Nov;19(4):122-6, 128, 130-2.

PMID: 17165491

New technology applications: thrombolysis of acute deep vein thrombosis.

Marchigiano G, Riendeau D, Jo Morse C.  Crit Care Nurs Q. 2006 Oct-Dec;29(4):312-23

PMID: 17063098

Reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in intensive care nurses using ceiling-mounted patient lifts.

Silverwood S, Haddock M.  Dynamics. 2006 Fall;17(3):19-21.

PMID: 17009569

Early mobilization of LVAD recipients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation.

Perme CS, Southard RE, Joyce DL, Noon GP, Loebe M.  Tex Heart Inst J. 2006;33(2):130-3.

PMID: 16878612  Full Text for Free

Physiotherapy following elective orthopaedic procedures.

De Kleijn P, Blamey G, Zourikian N, Dalzell R, Lobet S.  Haemophilia. 2006 Jul;12 Suppl 3:108-12.

PMID: 16684004


Activity in the chronically critically ill.  Winkelman C, Higgins PA, Chen YJ.  Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2005 Nov-Dec;24(6):281-90.  PMID: 16327517  Full Text for Free

Supported arm training in patients recently weaned from mechanical ventilation.

Porta R, Vitacca M, Gilè LS, Clini E, Bianchi L, Zanotti E, Ambrosino N.  Chest. 2005 Oct;128(4):2511-20.

PMID: 16236917  Full Text for Free

Early physiotherapy in the respiratory intensive care unit.

Clini E, Ambrosino N.  Respir Med. 2005 Sep;99(9):1096-104.

PMID: 16085211

Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation improves outcomes for neuromuscular disease patients with respiratory tract infections.  Vianello A, Corrado A, Arcaro G, Gallan F, Ori C, Minuzzo M, Bevilacqua M.  Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Feb;84(2):83-8; discussion 89-91.

PMID: 15668554


The impact of physical therapy on functional outcomes after stroke: what's the evidence?  Van Peppen RP, Kwakkel G, Wood-Dauphinee S, Hendriks HJ, Van der Wees PJ, Dekker J. Clin Rehabil. 2004 Dec;18(8):833-62.  PMID: 15609840

Rehabilitation of COPD patients: which training modality.  Clini E, Costi S, Romagnoli M, Florini F. Monaldi  Arch Chest Dis. 2004 Jul-Sep;61(3):167-73.  PMID: 15679011

Standing with the assistance of a tilt table improves minute ventilation in chronic critically ill patients.

Chang AT, Boots RJ, Hodges PW, Thomas PJ, Paratz JD.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Dec;85(12):1972-6.

PMID: 15605335

Patterns of chest physiotherapy in Australian Intensive Care Units.

Chaboyer W, Gass E, Foster M.  J Crit Care. 2004 Sep;19(3):145-51.

PMID: 15484174

Respiratory physiotherapy vs. suction: the effects on respiratory function in ventilated infants and children.

Main E, Castle R, Newham D, Stocks J.  Intensive Care Med. 2004 Jun;30(6):1144-51.

PMID: 15170529  Full Text for Free

Physiological responses to the early mobilisation of the intubated, ventilated abdominal surgery patient.

Zafiropoulos B, Alison JA, McCarren B.  Aust J Physiother. 2004;50(2):95-100.

PMID: 15151493  Full Text for Free

Muscle retraining in ICU patients.

Cirio S, Piaggi GC, De Mattia E, Nava S.  Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2003 Oct-Dec;59(4):300-3.

PMID: 15148840


Removing chest drains--a critical reflection of a complex clinical decision.

Riley ME.  Nurs Crit Care. 2003 Sep-Oct;8(5):212-21.

PMID: 14653529

Mobilisation strategies after hip fracture surgery in adults.

Handoll HH, Parker MJ, Sherrington C.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD001704.

PMID: 12535411


Are bed exercises necessary following hip arthroplasty?

Jesudason C, Stiller K.  Aust J Physiother. 2002;48(2):73-81.

PMID: 12047205  Full Text for Free

Randomized clinical study of the prevention of pulmonary complications after thoracoabdominal resection by two different breathing techniques.  Fagevik Olsén M, Wennberg E, Johnsson E, Josefson K, Lönroth H, Lundell L.  Br J Surg. 2002 Oct;89(10):1228-34..

PMID: 12296888

The role of rehabilitation specialists in Canadian NICUs: a national survey.

Limperopoulos C, Majnemer A.  Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2002;22(1):57-72.

PMID: 12174506

Muscle retraining in the ICU patients.

Nava S, Piaggi G, De Mattia E, Carlucci A.  Minerva Anestesiol. 2002 May;68(5):341-5.

PMID: 12029242  Full Text for Free

The effect of bed rest and potential of prehabilitation on patients in the intensive care unit.

Topp R, Ditmyer M, King K, Doherty K, Hornyak J 3rd.  AACN Clin Issues. 2002 May;13(2):263-76.

PMID: 12011598


Physiotherapy following cardiac surgery: is it necessary during the intubation period?

Patman S, Sanderson D, Blackmore M.  Aust J Physiother. 2001;47(1):7-16.

PMID: 11552858  Full Text for Free


Physiotherapy in intensive care: towards an evidence-based practice.

Stiller K.  Chest. 2000 Dec;118(6):1801-13.

PMID: 11115476  Full Text for Free


Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on physiologic and psychosocial outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  Ries AL, Kaplan RM, Limberg TM, Prewitt LM. Ann Intern Med. 1995 Jun 1;122(11):823-32.  PMID: 7741366

Exercise training in COPD patients: the basic questions.  Gosselink R, Troosters T, Decramer M. Eur Respir J. 1997 Dec;10(12):2884-91.  PMID: 9493679  Full Text for Free

Rehabilitation of patients admitted to a respiratory intensive care unit.  Nava S.  Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Jul;79(7):849-54.  PMID: 9685104

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